July 11, 2016

"Billion Dollar Bets" Selected Bibliography

This bibliography outlines resources used in the research for "Billion Dollar Bets" to Create Economic Opportunity for Every American.


Acs, Gregory, and Steven Martin. “The Promise of Early Interventions for Improving Socioeconomic Outcomes of Black Men.” Urban Institute, January 2015.

The Annie E. Casey Foundation. "The Path of Most Resistance: Reflections on Lessons Learned from New Futures." August 1995.

Atkinson, Anthony B. Inequality: What Can Be Done? Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2015).

Berlin, Gordon. "Poverty and Philanthropy: Strategies for Change." Prepared for the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation’s "Defining Poverty Reduction Strategies" Project, August 2008.

Blackwell, Angela Glover, Stewart Kwoh, and Manuel Pastor. Uncommon Common Ground: Race and America's Future, rev. ed. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2010.

Brooks, Arthur C. The Conservative Heart: How to build a fairer, happier, and more prosperous America. The American Enterprise Institute, 2015.

Buteau, Ellie, et al. "More than Money: Making a Difference with Assistance Beyond the Grant." The Center for Effective Philanthropy, December 2008.

Callahan, David. "7 Reasons Why Philanthropy Hasn't Made Much of a Dent in U.S. Poverty Rates.” Inside Philanthropy, September 30, 2014.

Chetty, Raj, Nathaniel Hendren, Patrick Kline, and Emmanuel Saez. “Where is the Land of Opportunity? The Geography of Intergenerational Mobility in the United States.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics, September 14, 2014.

Daminger, Allison, Jonathan Hayes, Anthony Barrows, and Josh Wright. Poverty Interrupted: Applying Behavioral Science to the Context of Chronic Scarcity. ideas42, May 2015.

Dreier, Peter. "Philanthropy's Misguided Ideas for Fixing Ghetto Poverty: The Limits of Free Markets and Place-Based Initiatives." Nonprofit Quarterly, March 2015.

Grannis, Kerry Searle, and Isabel V. Sawhill. Improving Children’s Life Chances: Estimates from the Social Genome Model. Social Genome Project Research, No. 49, Brookings Institution, October 2013.

Hopkins, Elwood M. "A Strategy for Alleviating Poverty." Stanford Social Innovation Review, December 4, 2014.

Kearney, Melissa S., and Benjamin H. Harris, eds. “Policies to Address Poverty in America.” The Hamilton Project, Brookings, June 2014.

Kohl-Arenas, Erica. "Can philanthropy ever reduce inequality?” opendemocracy.net, July 8, 2015.

Mac Donald, Heather. "The Billions of Dollars That Made Things Worse.” City Journal, Autumn 1996.

Moore, Kristin A., Vanessa H. Sacks, Jennifer Manlove, and Isabel Sawhill. "What If You Earned a Diploma and Delayed Parenthood?” Child Trends no. 2014-27, June 2014.

“Next Generation Community Revitalization: A Work in Progress.” The Bridgespan Group, December 2011.
Bradach, Jeffrey and Abe Grindle, “Transformative Scale: The Future of Growing What Works,” Stanford Social Innovation Review, Feb. 19, 2014.

Payne, Ruby K. A Framework for Understanding Poverty. Highlands, Texas: aha! Process, Inc., 1996.

Peter G. Peterson Foundation. “Policy Options for Improving Economic Opportunity and Mobility.” June 2015.

Piketty, Thomas. Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Translated by Arthur Goldhammer. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014.

“Poverty Communications Memo.” The Bridgespan Group, June 2013.

Putnam, Robert D. Our Kids: The American Dream in Crisis. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015.

Reeves, Richard V., and Kerry Searle Grannis. “Five Strong Starts for Social Mobility.” Center on Children
and Families at Brookings, January 2013.

Reeves, Richard V., and Allegra Pocinki. “Space, Place, Race: Six Policies to Improve Social Mobility.” Brookings, June 2, 2015.

Rupasingha, Anil, Stephen J. Goetz, and David Freshwater. “The Production of Social Capital in US Counties.” The Journal of Socio-Economics 35, no. 1 (February 2006): 83-101.

Sawhill, Isabel, and Quentin Karpilow. “A No-Cost Proposal to Reduce Poverty & Inequality.” Center on Children and Families at Brookings, January 2014.

Smiley, Tavis, and Cornel West. The Rich and the Rest of Us: A Poverty Manifesto. New York: SmileyBooks,

Smith, Brad. "Philanthropy's Difficult Dance with Inequality.” Philanthropy News Digest, July 16, 2015.

Stiglitz, Joseph E. The Great Divide: Unequal Societies and What We Can Do About Them. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2015.

Stiglitz, Joseph E. The Price of Inequality: How Today’s Divided Society Endangers Our Future. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2012.

Walker, Darren. "Inequality Can Be Dismantled at the Root." CNN, June 17, 2015.

Ylvisaker, Paul. "Social Justice and the Role of Philanthropy." Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation, October 1976.

Zweig, Jason. "The Anti-Poverty Experiment." The Wall Street Journal, June 5, 2015.

Early Childhood

Bornstein, David. "Protecting Children From Toxic Stress." The New York Times, October 30, 2013.

“CIS National Board Retreat White Paper.” Communities In Schools, May 7, 2013.

Crow, Sarah, and Hong Van Pham. “Helping Hands: A Review of Home Visiting Programs in California.” Next Generation, July 2014.

“Doesn't Every Child Deserve a Memorable Summer?” National Summer Learning Association, 2009.

Duncan, Greg J., and Richard J. Murnane. Restoring Opportunity: The Crisis of Inequality and the Challenge for American Education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press, 2014.

Durlak, Joseph A., and Roger P. Weissberg. “Afterschool Programs That Follow Evidence-Based Practices to Promote Social and Emotional Development Are Effective." Big Views Forward: A Compendium on Expanded Learning, 2012.

Durlak, Joseph A., Roger P. Weissberg, and Molly Pachan. "A Meta-Analysis of After-School Programs That Seek to Promote Personal and Social Skills in Children and Adolescents." American Journal of Community Psychology 34, no. 3 , 2010): 294-309.

Farnham, Lija, Gihani Fernando, Mike Perigo, and Colleen Brosman, with Paul Tough. "Rethinking How Students Succeed." Stanford Social Innovation Review, February 17, 2015.

Farrington, Camille A., et al. Teaching Adolescents to Become Learners: The Role of Noncognitive Factors in Shaping School Performance: A Critical Literature Review. The University of Chicago Consortium on Chicago School Research, June 2012.

Frey, Susan. "Study of Brain Scans May Show Impact of Poverty on Academic Achievement." EdSource, August 7, 2015.

Greenstone, Michael, Adam Looney, Jeremy Patashnik, and Muxin Yu. Thirteen Economic Facts about Social Mobility and the Role of Education. The Hamilton Project, Brookings, June 2013.

Hefner, Rebecca A. Out-of-School Time Programs: Research Summary. Council for Children's Rights,
January 2013.

Herzfeldt-Kamprath, Rachel, and Katie Hamm. “Emerging State and Community Strategies to Improve Infant and Toddler Services.” Center for American Progress, June 2015.

“How Children's Social Competence Impacts Their Well-Being in Adulthood.” Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, July 2015.

Johnson, Sara B., Anne W. Riley, Douglas A. Granger, and Jenna Riis. "The Science of Early Life Toxic Stress for Pediatric Practice and Advocacy." Pediatrics 131, no. 2, (February 2013): 319-327.

Jones, Stephanie M., and Suzanne M. Bouffard. "Social and Emotional Learning in Schools: From Programs to Strategies." Social Policy Report 26, no. 4 (2012): 1-33.

Ling, Thomson, and Kristin A. Moore. "What Works For Education: Lessons from Experimental Evaluations of Programs and Social Interventions to Enhance Educational Outcomes." Child Trends Fact Sheet, May 2008.

Minervino, Jim. "High-Quality Pre-K for Children and the Professionals Who Teach Them." Impatient Optimists, December 10, 2014.

Minervino, Jim. Lessons from Research and the Classroom: Implementing High-Quality Pre-K that Makes a Difference for Young Children. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, September 2014.

Moore, Kristin Anderson, and Kathleen Hamilton. “How Out-Of-School Time Program Quality is Related to Adolescent Outcomes.” Child Trends, August 2010.

Moore, Kristin Anderson, and Carol Emig. Integrated Student Supports: A Summary of the Evidence Base for Policymakers. Child Trends, February 2014.

"More Parents Report Enrolling Children in Summer Learning." Afterschool Alliance, July 2014.

Nagaoka, Jenny, Camille A. Farrington, Stacy B. Ehrlich, and Ryan D. Heath. Foundations for Young Adult Success: A Developmental Framework. The University of Chicago Consortium on Chicago School Research, June 2015.

Reeves, Richard V., Joanna Venator, and Kimberly Howard. The Character Factor: Measures and Impact of Drive and Prudence. Brookings Institution, October 22, 2014.

Reeves, Richard V., and Kimberly Howard. The Parenting Gap. Brookings Institution, September 8, 2013.
Reich, Justin. "Can Text Messages and Interventions Nudge Students Through School?” Mind/Shift, June 3,

Rosenberg, Tina. "Teaching Parents to Help Stop the 'Summer Slide.'" The New York Times, September 25, 2014.

Sabol, T. J., S. L. Soliday Hong, R. C. Pianta, and M. R. Burchinal. "Can Rating Pre-K Programs Predict Children's Learning?" Science 341, issue 6148 (August 23, 2013): 845-846.

Sawhill, Isabel V., and Quentin Karpilow. “How Much Could We Improve Children's Life Chances by Intervening Early and Often?” Center on Children and Families at Brookings, updated March 2015.

Sawhill, Isabel V., Scott Winship, and Kerry Searle Grannis. “Pathways to the Middle Class: Balancing Personal and Public Responsibilities.” Center on Children and Families at Brookings, September 20, 2012.

"SEL Programs for Elementary School (K-5): Rating Tables." Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning, 2015, https://casel.squarespace.com/guide/ratings/elementary.

Shaw, Linda. "How Boston's Preschools Went from Mediocre to Outstanding." The Seattle Times Education Lab Blog, January 30, 2014, http://blogs.seattletimes.com/educationlab/2014/01/30/how-bostons-preschools-went-from-mediocre-to-outstanding/.

Snipes, Jason, Cheri Fancsali, and Ginger Stoker. “Student Academic Mindset Interventions.” IMPAQ International and Stupski Foundation, August, 2012.

"Too Small to Fail, Text4Baby and Sesame Street Launch First National Text-to-Parents Program to Support Young Children's Early Language Development." Too Small to Fail, January 22, 2015, http://toosmall.org/news/press-releases/too-small-to-fail-text4baby-and-sesame-street-launch-first-national-text-to-parents-program-to-support-young-childrens-early-language-development.

"What We Do: Washington State Early Learning." Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, http://www.gatesfoundation.org/What-We-Do/US-Program/Washington-State/Early-Learning.
Yoshikawa, Hirokazu, et al. “Investing in Our Future: The Evidence Base on Preschool Education.” Society for Research in Child Development and Foundation for Child Development, October 2013.

Career Pathways

Adelman, Cliff, Peter Ewell, Paul Gaston, and Carol Geary Schneider. “The Degree Qualifications Profile.” Lumina Foundation, October 2014.

Altstadt, David. “Aligning Community Colleges to Their Local Labor Markets.” Jobs for the Future, September 2011.

Baber, Angela. “Using Community Colleges to Build a STEM-Skilled Workforce.” NGA Center for Best Practices, June 2014.

 Bailey, Martha J., and Susan M. Dynarski. “Gains and Gaps: Changing Inequality in U.S. College Entry and Completion.” NBER Working Paper No. 17633, December 2011.

Barber, Michael, Katelyn Donnelly, and Saad Rizvi. “An Avalanche is Coming: Higher Education and the Revolution Ahead.” Institute for Public Policy Research, March 2013.

Baum, Sandy, Jennifer Ma, and Kathleen Payea. Education Pays 2013: The Benefits of Higher Education for Individuals and Society. CollegeBoard, 2013.

Berger, Andrea, et al. “Early College, Continued Success: Early College High School Initiative Impact Study 2014.” American Institutes for Research, January 2014.

Borough of Manhattan Community College, Health Information Pathway Initiative, "Project Abstract: TAACCCT: Part III Technical Proposal."

Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Employment Rates by Age, Sex, Race, and Hispanic or Latino Ethnicity.” Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey, http://www.bls.gov/cps/tables.htm#empstat_q.

Cahill, Charlotte, Nancy Hoffman, Amy Loyd, and Joel Vargas. “State Strategies for Sustaining and Scaling 9-14 Career Pathways: Policy Brief.” Jobs for the Future, November 2014.

Carnevale, Anthony P., and Stephen J. Rose. “The Undereducated American.” Georgetown Center on Education and the Workforce, 2011.

"Community College FAQs." Community College Research Center, http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/Community-College-FAQs.html.

"Connecting what America learns to how business works." The ACT Foundation, http://actfdn.org/what-we-do/optimize-solutions/national-network-business-industry-associations/.

Casner-Lotto, Jill, and Linda Barrington. “Are They Really Ready to Work?: Employers' Perspectives on the Basic Knowledge and Applied Skills of New Entrants to the 21st Century U.S. Workforce.” Partnership for 21st Centry Skills, 2006.
“A Definition of Career Pathways.” Career Ladders Project, February 2013, http://www.careerladdersproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/defining-career-pathways-ccp.pdf.

The Economist Intelligence Unit. “Closing the Skills Gap: Companies and Colleges Collaborating for Change.” Lumina Foundation, 2014.

Emerick, Scott, and Clare Bertrand. “Betting on a Better Counseling Approach for College and Careers.” Vander Ark on Education (blog), December 15, 2014.

Field, Kelly. "Sweeping Change Is in the Works for How Job-Training Dollars Are Allocated." The Chronicle of Higher Education, July 22, 2014.

Golden, Olivia. “Early Lessons from the Work Support Strategies Initiative: Planning and Piloting Health and Human Services Integration in Nine States.” Ford Foundation et al., March 2013.

Heidkamp, Maria, and Thomas Hilliard. “A Review of Community College-Employer Partnerships and Initiatives: Expanding Opportunities for Job Seekers with Disabilities.” Employer Assistance and Resource Network, September 2014.

Helmer, Matt, and Amy Blair, Initial Education and Employment Outcomes Findings for Students Enrolled In Healthcare Career Training 2003-2009. Workforce Strategies Initiative Aspen Institute, Revised March 2011.

Helmer, Matt and Amy Blair, Initial Education and Employment Outcomes Findings for Students Enrolled In Carreras en Salud Healthcare Training 2005-2009. Workforce Strategies Initiative Aspen Institute, February 2011.

Hoffman, Nancy. “Let's Get Real: Deeper Learning and the Power of the Workplace.” Jobs for the Future, February 2015).

Holzer, Harry J. “Proposal 8: Improving Employment Outcomes for Disadvantaged Students.” The Hamilton Project, Brookings, 2014.

Jaschik, Scott. "'Tuning' College Degrees." Inside Higher Ed, April 8, 2009.

Jenkins, Davis, Matthew Zeidenberg, and Gregory S. Kienzl. “Building Bridges to Postsecondary Training for Low-Skill Adults: Outcomes of Washington State's I-BEST Program.” Columbia University, May 2009.

Jenkins Davis, Matthew Zeidenberg, and Gregory S. Kienzl. “Educational Outcomes of I-BEST, Washington State Community and Technical College System's Integrated Basic Education and Skills Training Program: Findings from a Multivariate Analysis.” Teachers College, Columbia University, May 2009.

Jobs for the Future and and Community College Research Center. “Rethinking 12th Grade: Preparing All Students for College Before College.” November 2013.

Jobs for the Future. “’These People Just Keep Trying to Help Me’: Supporting Students to Succeed in College and Career Pathways.” June 2015.

Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. “Enriching the Ecosystem.” Harvard Business Review, March 2012.

Kochan, Thomas A., David Finegold, and Paul Osterman. “Who Can Fix the ‘Middle-Skills‘ Gap?” Harvard Business Review, December 2012.

Lerman, Robert I. “Proposal 7: Expanding Apprenticeship Opportunities in the United States.” The Hamilton Project, Brookings, 2014.

Lumina Foundation. “Connecting Credentials: A Beta Credentials Framework.” 2015.

Manyika, James, et al. “A Labor Market that Works; Connecting Talent with Opportunity in the Digital Age.” McKinsey Global Institute, June 2015.

McConnell, Sheena et al. “Proposal 9: Providing Disadvantaged Workers with Skills to Succeed in the Labor Market.” The Hamilton Project, Brookings, June 2014.

Milfort, Myriam, and Jeremy Kelley. “Innovations in Labor Market Information and Their Application.” Greenways, Jobs for the Future, August 2012.

Mourshed, Mona, Diana Farrell, and Dominic Barton. “Education to Employment: Designing a System that Works.” McKinsey Center for Government, January 2013.

"New Survey Indicates Veterans Are Optimistic About Return to Civilian Careers But Want Training & Education for Jobs That Will Make a Difference," GE, October 15, 2012.

The Pathways to Prosperity Network. “The Pathways to Prosperity Network: A State Progress Report, 2012-2014.” The Pathways to Prosperity Network, Jobs for the Future, Harvard Graduate School of Education, June 2014.

Reamer, Andrew. “Using Real-Time Labor Market Information on a Nationwide Scale.” Jobs for the Future, April 2013.

Roder, Anne, and Mark Elliott. “A Promising Start: Year Up's initial Impacts on Low-Income Young Adults' Careers.” Economic Mobility Corporation, April 2011.

Rupasingha, Anil, et al. “The Production of Social Capital in US Counties.” The Journal of Socio-Economics 35, no. 1 (February 2006): 83-101.

“Skilled Trades Playbook: Dynamic Partnerships for a New Economy.” The Aspen Institute, Skills for America's Future, October 2013.

Smith, Tara C., and Christopher T. King. “Exploratory Return-on-Investment Analysis of Local Workforce Investments. Ray Marshall Center for the Study of Human Resources, August 2011.

Southern Education Foundation. “A New Majority Research Bulletin: Low Income Students Now a Majority In the Nation’s Public Schools.” January 2015.

Stratton, Cay, et al. “Made in Durham: Building an Education-to-Career System.” MDC, October 2012.
Struell, Beth and Joel Vargas. “Taking College Courses in High School: A Strategy for College Readiness.” Jobs for the Future, October 2012.

Symonds, William C., Robert Schwartz, and Ronald F. Ferguson. “Pathways to Prosperity: Meeting the Challenge of Preparing Young Americans for the 21st Century.” Harvard Graduate School of Education, February 2011.
Working Together: Implementing a Demand-led Employment and Training System. Deloitte and Social Capital Partners, 2014.

Reducing Unintended Pregnancy

Aliferis, Lisa. “Updated Training of Birth Control Counselors Boosts use of IUDs.”NPR, June 16, 2015.

Beeson T., et al. “Accessibility of Long-acting Reversible Contraceptives (LARC) in Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs).” National Center for Biotechnology Information, October 2013.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “How Effective are Birth Control Methods?” April 2015,  http://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/unintendedpregnancy/contraception.htm.

Child Trends Data Bank. “Unintended Births: Indicators on Children and Youth.” September 2013.
Diedrich, Justin T., et al. "Three-year Continuation of Reversible Contraception." American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 213, no. 5 (2015): 662-664.

Gold, Rachel Benson. "Guarding Against Coercion While Ensuring Access: A Delicate Balance." Guttmacher Policy Review 17, no. 3 (2014).

The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. "Private and Public Coverage of Contraceptive Services and Supplies in the United States." July 2015.

Jervis, Coco. "The Great LARC Debate: Facilitating a Balanced Approach to Education and Promotion of LARCs." National Women's Health Network Newsletter, July/August 2015.

Kearney, Melissa S., and Phillip B. Levine. “Media Influences on Social Outcomes: The Impact of MTV’s 16 and Pregnant on Teen Childbearing.” American Economic Review 105, no. 12 (January December 2015): 3597-3632.

Mosher, William D., Jo Jones, and Joyce C. Abma. "Intended and Unintended Births in the United States: 1982-2010.” National Health Statistics Reports, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012.

The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. “Briefly: Public Opinion on Contraception and Unplanned Pregnancy.” October 2012.

The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. "Briefly: Unplanned Pregnancy Among College Students and Strategies to Address It." July 2015.

The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. “On a LARC.” February 2015.

The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. “Teen Childbearing in the United States, Birth Data.” January 2016.

Reeves, Richard V. and Joanna Venator. ““Sex, Contraception, or Abortion? Explaining Class Gaps in Unintended Childbearing.” Brookings Institution, February 2015.

Sawhill, Isabel. Generation Unbound: Drifting into Sex and Parenthood without Marriage. Brookings Institution Press, 2014.

Sawhill, Isabel, and Joanna Venator. “Improving Children’s Life Chances Through Better Family Planning.” (Center on Children and Families at Brookings, January 2015.

Thomas, Adam, and Quentin Karpilow. “FamilyScape 3.0: Architectural Overview,” Social Genome Project Research, No. 51,Center on Children and Families at Brookings, Child Trends, Georgetown University McCourt School of Public Policy, May 2015.

University of California, San Francisco. "Cluster, Randomized Trial on Long Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC) Education and Training." ClinicalTrials,gov, 2013.

Wood, Susan F., et al. “Patient Experiences With Family Planning in Community Health Centers.” Milken Institute School of Public Health, Geiger Gibson Program in Community Health, Jacobs Institute of Women’s Health (George Washington University), and rchn Community Health Foundation, July 2015.


Alexander, Michelle. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York: The New Press, 2010.

American Civil Liberties Union. "What is the School-to-Prison Pipeline?" https://www.aclu.org/fact-sheet/what-school-prison-pipeline.

Boccanfuso, Christopher and Megan Kuhfeld, Megan. “Multiple Responses, Promising Results: Evidence-Based, Nonpunitive Alternatives to Zero Tolerance.” Child Trends, March 2011.

“Breaking the Cycle of Low-Level Crime: Public Safety Innovations During an Era of Change.” Californians for Safety and Justice, July 2015.

“Collateral Costs: Incarceration's Effect on Economic Mobility.” The Pew Charitable Trusts, 2010.

Gingrich, Newt and Van Jones, "Prison System Is Failing America." CNN, May 22, 2014.

Henrichson, Christian, Joshua Rinaldi, and Ruth Delaney, “The Price of Jails: Measuring the Taxpayer Cost of Local Incarceration.” Vera Institute of Justice, May 2015.

"Jailhouse Nation: How to Make America's Penal System Less Punitive and More Effective," The Economist, June 20, 2015.

Johnson, Calvin; Mathilde Laisne, and Jon Wool. “Criminal Justice: Changing Course on Incarceration.” Data Center Research, June 2015.

Kang-Brown, Jacob, Jennifer Trone, Jennifer Fratello, and Tarika Daftary-Kapur. “A Generation Later: What We've Learned about Zero Tolerance in Schools.” Vera Institute of Justice, December 2013.

Keefe, Patrick Radden. “Dismantling the Prison State.” The Century Foundation, June 4, 2015.

Liberman, Akiva M., and Jocelyn Fontaine. “Reducing Harms to Boys and Young Men of Color from Criminal Justice System Involvement.” Urban Institute, February 2015.

Losen, Daniel, Damon Hewitt, and Ivory Toldson. “Eliminating Excessive and Unfair Exclusionary Discipline in Schools: Policy Recommendations for Reducing Disparities.” Discipline Disparities: A Research-to-Practice Collaborative, March 2014.

Mamalian, Cynthia A. “State of the Science of Pretrial Risk Assessment.” Pretrial Justice Institute, March 2011.

Mauer, Marc, and Nazgol Ghandnoosh. “Incorporating Racial Equity into Criminal Justice Reform.” The Sentencing Project, October 2014.

MDRC. "MDRC Statement on the Vera Institute's Study of the Adolescent Behavioral Learning Experience (ABLE) Program at Rikers Island," July 2015, http://www.mdrc.org/news/announcement/mdrc-statement-vera-institute-s-study-adolescent-behavioral-learning-experience.

Owens, Jody. "How Prison Stints Replaced Study Hall: America's Problem with Criminalizing Kids." POLITICO Magazine, March 15, 2015.

“Race to the Top Program Executive Summary.” US Department of Education, November 2009.
Raphael, Steven, and Michael A. Stoll. “A New Approach to Reducing Incarceration While Maintaining Low Rates of Crime.” The Hamilton Project, Brookings Institute, May 2014.

Rosenberg, Tina. "The Simple Idea That Could Transform US Criminal Justice." The Guardian, June 23, 2015.

Ross, Dax-Devlon. "Tackling Mass Incarceration." The New York Times, April 2, 2014.

Safety and Justice Challenge, "About the Challenge," http://www.safetyandjusticechallenge.org/about-the-challenge.

Skiba, Russell J.; Mariella I. Arredondo, and Karega M. Rausch. “New and Developing Research on Disparities in Discipline.” Discipline Disparities Research-to-Practice Collaborative, March 2014.

Subramanian, Ram, et al. “Incarceration's Front Door: The Misuse of Jails in America.” Vera Institute of Justice, February 2015.

Subramanian, Ram, Rebecka Moreno, and Sharyn Broomhead. “Recalibrating Justice: A Review of 2013 State Sentencing and Corrections Trends.” Vera Institute of Justice, July 2014.

Subramanian, Ram, Rebecka Moreno, and Sophia Gebreselassie. “Relief in Sight? States Rethink the Collateral Consequences of Criminal Conviction, 2009-2014.” Vera Institute of Justice, December 2014.

“Supporting Second Chances: Education and Employment Strategies for People Returning from Correctional Facilities.” Jobs for the Future, August 2015.

“Ten Steps to System Change: Sustaining New Ways of Doing Business Takes a Close Look in the Mirror.” Justice System Partners, August 2015.

Toobin, Jeffrey. "The Milwaukee Experiment: What Can One Prosecutor Do about the Mass Incarceration of African-Americans?" The New Yorker, May 11, 2015.

VanNostrand, Marie, Kenneth J. Rose, and Kimberly Weibrecht. “State of the Science of Pretrial Release Recommendations and Supervision.” Pretrial Justice Institute, June 2011.

Regions of Opportunity

Aron, Laudan Y., Wendy Jacobson, and Margery Austin Turner. “Addressing Deep and Persistent Poverty: A Framework for Philanthropic Planning and Investment.” Urban Institute, December 2013.

Bishaw, Alemayehu. “Areas with Concentrated Poverty: 2006-2010.” American Community Survey Briefs, U.S. Census Bureau, December 2011.

Bischoff, Kendra and Sean F. Reardon. “Residential Segregation by Income, 1970-2009.” Russell Sage Foundation, October 2013.

Chetty, Raj, Nathaniel Hendren, and Lawrence F. Katz. “The Effects of Exposure to Better Neighborhoods on Children: New Evidence from the Moving to Opportunity Experiment.” American Economic Review 106, no. 4 (May 2015): 855-902.

Cytron, Naomi. "Improving the Outcomes of Place-Based Initiatives." Community Investments 22, no.1 (Spring 2010): 5-7.

Engdahl, Lora. “New Homes, New Neighborhoods, New Schools: A Progress Report on the Baltimore Housing Mobility Program.” Poverty & Race Research Action Council, October 2009.

Fresno Area Strive, “2012 Baseline Report: Supporting Every Child Cradle to Career.” www.strivetogether.org/sites/default/files/images/FresnoStrive2012Report_WEB.pdf.

Goering, John. "The Impacts of New Neighborhoods on Poor Families: Evaluating the Policy Implications of the Moving to Opportunity Demonstration" Federal Reserve Bank of New York Economic Policy Review 9, no. 2 (June 2003) 113-140.

Jargowsky, Paul A. “Architecture of Segregation: Civil Unrest, the Concentration of Poverty, and Public Policy.” The Century Foundation, August 2015.

Jargowsky, Paul A. “Concentration of Poverty in the New Millennium: Changes in the Prevalence, Composition, and Location of High Poverty Neighborhoods, A Report of the Century Foundation and the Rutgers Center for Urban Research and Education.” Century Foundation, December 2013.

Lens, Michael C., Ingrid G. Ellen, and Katherine O’Regan. “Do Vouchers Help Low-Income Households Live in Safer Neighborhoods? Evidence on the Housing Choice Voucher Program.” Cityscape 13, no. 3 (2011): 127-152.

Nichols, Austin. “Evaluation of Community-Wide Interventions.” Urban Institute, July 2013.

Numenthal, Pamela M., and John R. McGinty. “Housing Policy Levers to Promote Economic Mobility.” Urban Institute, October 2015.

Putnam, Robert D. Our Kids: The American Dream in Crisis. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015.

Sharkey, Patrick. Stuck in Place: Urban Neighborhoods and the End of Progress toward Racial Equality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013.

Sharkey, Patrick, and Bryan Graham. “Mobility and the Metropolis: How Communities Factor Into Economic Mobility.” Pew Charitable Trusts, December 2013.

Sharkey, Patrick, Robert D. Putnam, and Margery Turner. “Rebuilding Communities to Help Close the Opportunity Gap.” In Closing the Opportunity Gap: A Project of the Saguaro Seminar, 50-61. Harvard Kennedy School, 2016.

Stone, Nan . “Next Generation Community Revitalization: A Work in Progress.” The Bridgespan Group, December 2011.

Turner, Margery Austin, and Xavier de Souza Briggs. "Assisted Housing Mobility and the Success of Low-Income Minority Families: Lessons for Policy, Practice, and Future Research." Urban Institute Metropolitan Housing and Communities Center Brief No. 5, March 2008.

Turner, Margery Austin, and Stephen L. Ross. “How Racial Discrimination Affects the Search for Housing.” In The Geography of Opportunity, edited by Xavier de Souza Briggs, 81-100. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2005.

Turner, Margery Austin, et al. “Tackling Persistent Poverty in Distressed Urban Neighborhoods.” Urban Institute, July 2014.

Turner, Margery Austin. “Tackling Poverty in Place: Principles for a Next Generation of Place-Conscious Interventions.” Urban Institute: May 2014.

Urban Institute, "Policy Debates: Housing and Economic Mobility." April 2015, http://www.urban.org/debates/housing-and-economic-mobility.

Wilson, William Julius. The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner-City, the Underclass and Public Policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

Social Science Research

Bernstein, Jared, Ben Spielberg, and Scott Winship. “Policy Options for Improving Economic Opportunity and Mobility.” Center for Budget and Policy Priorities and the Manhattan Institute, June 2015.

Haskins, Ron, and Greg Margolis. Show Me the Evidence: Obama’s Fight for Rigor and Results in Social Policy Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2015.
Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, and the National Science Foundation, “Common Guidelines for Education Research and Development.” August 2013.

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